International Journal of Trichology International Journal of Trichology
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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 164-167

Direct immunofluorescence pattern and histopathological staging in alopecia areata

1 Department of Pathology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32-A, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32-A, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Reetu Kundu
Department of Pathology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32-A, Chandigarh - 160 030
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-7753.142859

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Aim: The present study was designed to categorize alopecia areata (AA) into various stages based on histopathology and further study the direct immunofluorescence (DIF) pattern. Materials and Methods: The current study is noninterventional, prospective study on 25 consecutive patients suspected of AA based on clinical assessment. Histomorphologic features and immunoreactivity for IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3, was studied on biopsy material. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 6 years to 48 years with a mean age of 28.56 ± 21.8 years. Majority of patients, 9 (36%) were in the age group of 21-30 years. Of 25 patients, 13 (52%) were males and 12 (48%) were females. Male: female ratio was 1.1:1. On histopathology majority of cases were in subacute stage 9 (36%), followed by chronic 7 (28%), acute 5 (20%) and recovery stages 4 (16%). Three (12%) of 4 cases showed characteristic swarm of bees appearance. Two (8%) of the cases showed presence of giant cells. Increased numbers of catagen hair were seen in 12 (48%) cases. Of 25 cases, 9 (36%) cases showed positive DIF with granular deposits. The most common immunoreactant was IgG in 7 (28%) cases, followed by IgA in 4 (16%), C3 in 6 (24%) and IgM in 3 (12%) cases. Of 9 cases showing positive staining, 3 (12%) were in acute stage and 2 (8%) each in subacute, chronic and recovery stages. Conclusion: The observations further reiterate that immune mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of AA.

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