International Journal of Trichology International Journal of Trichology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A randomized evaluator blinded study of effect of microneedling in androgenetic alopecia: A pilot study
Rachita Dhurat, MS Sukesh, Ganesh Avhad, Ameet Dandale, Anjali Pal, Poonam Pund
January-March 2013, 5(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.114700  PMID:23960389
Introduction: Dermal papilla (DP) is the site of expression of various hair growth related genes. Various researches have demonstrated the underlying importance of Wnt proteins and wound growth factors in stimulating DP associated stem cells. Microneedling works by stimulation of stem cells and inducing activation of growth factors. Materials and Methods: Hundred cases of mild to moderate (III vertex or IV) androgenetic alopecia (AGA) were recruited into 2 groups. After randomization one group was offered weekly microneedling treatment with twice daily 5% minoxidil lotion (Microneedling group); other group was given only 5% minoxidil lotion. After baseline global photographs, the scalp were shaved off to ensure equal length of hair shaft in all. Hair count was done in 1 cm 2 targeted fixed area (marked with tattoo) at baseline and at end of therapy (week 12). The 3 primary efficacy parameters assessed were: Change from baseline hair count at 12 weeks, patient assessment of hair growth at 12 weeks, and investigator assessment of hair growth at 12 weeks. A blinded investigators evaluated global photographic response. The response was assessed by 7- point scale. Results: (1) Hair counts - The mean change in hair count at week 12 was significantly greater for the Microneedling group compared to the Minoxidil group (91.4 vs 22.2 respectively). (2) Investigator evaluation - Forty patients in Microneedling group had +2 to +3 response on 7-point visual analogue scale, while none showed the same response in the Minoxidil group. (3) Patient evaluation - In the Microneedling group, 41 (82%) patients reported more than 50% improvement versus only 2 (4.5%) patients in the Minoxidil group. Unsatisfied patients to conventional therapy for AGA got good response with Microneedling treatment. Conclusion: Dermaroller along with Minoxidil treated group was statistically superior to Minoxidil treated group in promoting hair growth in men with AGA for all 3 primary efficacy measures of hair growth. Microneedling is a safe and a promising tool in hair stimulation and also is useful to treat hair loss refractory to Minoxidil therapy.
  104,482 542 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Trichoscopy in alopecias: Diagnosis simplified
Nilam Jain, Bhavana Doshi, Uday Khopkar
October-December 2013, 5(4):170-178
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.130385  PMID:24778525
Trichoscopy is the term coined for dermoscopic imaging of the scalp and hair. This novel diagnostic technique, both simple and non-invasive, can be used as a handy bed side tool for diagnosing common hair and scalp disorders. Trichoscopic observations can be broadly grouped as hair signs, vascular patterns, pigment patterns and interfollicular patterns. In this article, we have briefly described the trichoscopic findings in the common categories of cicatricial and non-cicatricial alopecias such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, tinea capitis, trichotillomania, lichen planopilaris, discoid lupus erythematosus and hair shaft disorders. Besides diagnosing alopecia, it has the potential for obviating unnecessary biopsies and when a biopsy is still needed it is helpful in choosing an ideal biopsy site. Moreover, trichoscopy is a valuable tool for evaluating the treatment response photographically at each follow-up. The last statement here is deleted as asked.
  10,772 693 -
CASE REPORTS
Diffuse neurofibroma of the scalp presenting as circumscribed alopecic patch
BC Sharath Kumar, MG Gopal, Ankur Talwar, M Ramesh
January-June 2010, 2(1):60-62
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.66919  PMID:21188030
Neurofibroma is a benign tumor of the peripheral nerve sheath characterized by proliferation of Schwann cells, perineural cells and endoneurial fibroblasts. Different types of neurofibromas can be identified, including localized, plexiform, and diffuse types. Diffuse neurofibroma is an uncommon form of neurofibroma that occurs primarily in children and young adults. The head and neck regions are the most common sites of involvement. Diffuse neurofibroma is an ill-defined infiltrative lesion and tends to involve the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It produces localized thickening and induration of the skin. We present a case of a 12-year-old boy who had a diffuse neurofibroma on the scalp since the age of 2 years.
  9,050 68 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Clinical photography for trichology practice: Tips and tricks
KT Ashique, Feroze Kaliyadan
January-June 2011, 3(1):7-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.82118  PMID:21769229
Clinical photography of hair disorders is an extension of photography in dermatology practice. Some points should be kept in mind while taking images of the hair and hair bearing areas in view of the reflection of light and the subsequent glare that may spoil the result. For documentation of most conditions of the hair, the same general rules of dermatological photography apply. The correct lighting is the most important aspect of clinical photography in trichology practice and can be achieved by reflected light than direct light. Special care should be taken in conditions requiring serial images to document progress/response to treatment and the most important factor in this context is consistency with respect to patient positioning, lighting, camera settings and background. Dermoscopy/trichoscopy can also be incorporated in clinical practice for image documentation.
  8,390 223 3
CASE REPORTS
Silvery hair syndrome in two cousins: Chediak-Higashi syndrome vs griscelli syndrome, with rare associations
R Raghunatha Reddy, Balaji M Babu, B Venkateshwaramma, CH Hymavathi
July-December 2011, 3(2):107-111
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.90825  PMID:22223973
Silvery hair is a rare clinical manifestation which is a common presentation in a group of rare syndromes which usually present in the pediatric age group together termed as "silvery hair syndrome," consisting of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome (GS), and Elejalde disease. CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by mild pigment dilution (partial oculocutaneous albinism), silvery blond hair, severe phagocytic immunodeficiency, bleeding tendencies, recurrent pyogenic infections, progressive sensory or motor neurological defects. GS is also a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by reduced skin pigmentation, often regarded as partial albinism and silvery grey hair combined with immunodeficiency. To make correct diagnosis and to differentiate between CHS and GS, it requires light microscopic examination of skin and hair shafts, immunological and peripheral blood smear evaluation. They have been reported to be associated with some common clinical association as a part of the syndrome due to pigmentary delusion, neurological dysfunction, and severe life-threatening infections due to neutrophil phagocytosis dysfunction. There are reports of few rare associations and varied presentations and variable mean survival age. We report two cases with common presentation of silvery hair but varied systemic and clinical manifestations and survival in two cousin brothers from the same family.
  8,069 121 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Topical Melatonin for Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia
Tobias W Fischer, Ralph M Trüeb, Gabriella Hänggi, Marcello Innocenti, Peter Elsner
October-December 2012, 4(4):236-245
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.111199  PMID:23766606
Background: In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Materials and Methods: One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardised questionnaires, TrichoScan, 60-second hair count test and hair pull test. Results: Five clinical studies showed positive effects of a topical melatonin solution in the treatment of AGA in men and women while showing good tolerability: (1) Pharmacodynamics under once-daily topical application in the evening showed no significant influence on endogenous serum melatonin levels. (2) An observational study involving 30 men and women showed a significant reduction in the degree of severity of alopecia after 30 and 90 days ( P < 0.001) based on questionnaires completed by investigators and patients. (3) Using a digital software-supported epiluminescence technique (TrichoScan) in 35 men with AGA, after 3 and 6 months in 54.8% to 58.1% of the patients a significant increase of hair density of 29% and 41%, respectively was measured (M0: 123/cm² M3: 159/cm² M6: 173/cm²) ( P < 0,001). (4) In 60 men and women with hair loss, a significant reduction in hair loss was observed in women, while hair loss in men remained constant ( P < 0.001). (5) In a large, 3-month, multi-center study with more than 1800 volunteers at 200 centers, the percentage of patients with a 2- to 3-fold positive hair-pull test decreased from 61.6% to 7.8%, while the percentage of patients with a negative hair-pull test increased from 12.2.% to 61.5% ( P < 0.001). In addition, a decrease in seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp was observed. Conclusions: Since safety and tolerability in all of the studies was good, the topical application of a cosmetic melatonin solution can be considered as a treatment option in androgenetic alopecia.
  7,987 163 1
CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION
Light microscopy of the hair: A simple tool to "untangle" hair disorders
Keshavmurthy A Adya, Arun C Inamadar, Aparna Palit, Ragunatha Shivanna, Niranjan S Deshmukh
January-June 2011, 3(1):46-56
PMID:21769242
Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair.
  7,881 242 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Intermammary pilonidal sinus
Anil Sunkara, DD Wagh, Sameer Harode
July-December 2010, 2(2):116-118
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.77526  PMID:21712902
  8,075 36 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Adamson's Fringe, Horatio George Adamson, and Kligman's experiments and observations on Tinea capitis
Rajiv Joshi
January-June 2011, 3(1):14-19
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.82120  PMID:21769230
Adamson's fringe is located at the upper margin of the keratogenous zone of the hair follicle where the nucleated hair shaft cornifies completely and gets converted to hard anucleated keratin. It marks also the area of complete keratinization of the cuticle and Henle's layer of the inner root sheath and the beginning of the stem of the follicle. In Tinea capitis, dermatophytic infection of the hair shaft is restricted to this zone and the fungi do not penetrate further down the infected hair in the bulb of the follicle. The fungi in Adamson's words form "a fringe of mycelium surrounding the hair shaft and project below the lower margin of the sheath of spores around the root-stem." Horatio George Adamson (1865--1955), a British dermatologist first described this phenomenon, in 1895, and this article describes Adamson's fringe with a short biography of Adamson and discusses Kligman's experiments and observations on Tinea capitis which validated the observations of Adamson and the concept of Adamson's Fringe and described the pathogenesis in Tinea capitis.
  7,924 78 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Madarosis: A marker of many Maladies
Annapurna Kumar, Kaliaperumal Karthikeyan
January-March 2012, 4(1):3-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.96079  
Madarosis is a terminology that refers to loss of eyebrows or eyelashes. This clinical sign occurs in various diseases ranging from local dermatological disorders to complex systemic diseases. Madarosis can be scarring or non-scarring depending upon the etiology. Appropriate diagnosis is essential for management. Follicular unit transplantation has been found to be a useful method of treating scarring madarosis and the procedure relevant to eyebrow and eyelash reconstruction has been discussed. A useful clinical approach to madarosis has also been included for bedside diagnosis. The literature search was conducted with Pubmed, Medline, and Google scholar using the keywords madarosis, eyebrow loss, and eyelash loss for articles from 1960 to September 2011. Relevant material was also searched in textbooks and used wherever appropriate.
  7,759 201 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effective treatment of folliculitis decalvans using selected antimicrobial agents
Caulloo Sillani, Zhang Bin, Zhao Ying, Cai Zeming, Yang Jian, Zhang Xingqi
January-June 2010, 2(1):20-23
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.66908  PMID:21188019
Folliculitis Decalvans (FD) is a rare neutrophilic infammation of the scalp characterized by painful, recurrent purulent follicular exudation resulting in primary cicatricial alopecia. However, unclear etiology makes FD treatment a difficult task. A wide variety of topical and systemic agents have been tried previously, with varied results. We present here a case series report of a set of 13 patients with FD on antimicrobial therapy.
  7,362 153 7
REVIEW ARTICLES
Aging of the hair follicle pigmentation system
Desmond J Tobin
July-December 2009, 1(2):83-93
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.58550  PMID:20927229
Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations.
  6,913 504 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Bimatoprost in the treatment of eyelash universalis alopecia areata
Teresa Ojeda Vila, Francisco M Camacho Martinez
July-December 2010, 2(2):86-88
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.77511  PMID:21712909
Objectives: To evaluate topical bimatoprost for eyelash growth in patients with alopecia areata (AA). Design: A 1-year retrospective study, bilateral eyelash alopecia. Materials and Methods: Forty-one subjects with AA universalis without ocular disease applied 0.03% bimatoprost to the eyelid margin once a day over the course of 1 year. Results: Thirty-seven subjects completed the study, one patient was eliminated due to conjunctivitis at the beginning of treatment, two patients developed conjunctivitis after 6 months of treatment, and a fourth did not follow directions. Researchers evaluated patients' eyelash growth every 4 months. We observed complete growth in 24.32%, moderate growth in 18.91%, slight growth in 27.02% and without response in 29.72%. Conclusion: Bimatoprost may be effective and safe in the treatment of eyelash AA. 43.24% of the patients had an acceptable cosmetic response (total and moderate growth). Limitations: Design without control.
  7,103 133 8
REVIEW ARTICLES
Hair evaluation methods: Merits and demerits
Rachita Dhurat, Punit Saraogi
July-December 2009, 1(2):108-119
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.58553  PMID:20927232
Various methods are available for evaluation (for diagnosis and/or quantification) of a patient presenting with hair loss. Hair evaluation methods are grouped into three main categories: Non-invasive methods (e.g., questionnaire, daily hair counts, standardized wash test, 60-s hair count, global photographs, dermoscopy, hair weight, contrasting felt examination, phototrichogram, TrichoScan and polarizing and surface electron microscopy), semi-invasive methods (e.g., trichogram and unit area trichogram) and invasive methods (e.g., scalp biopsy). Any single method is neither 'ideal' nor feasible. However, when interpreted with caution, these are valuable tools for patient diagnosis and monitoring. Daily hair counts, wash test, etc. are good methods for primary evaluation of the patient and to get an approximate assessment of the amount of shedding. Some methods like global photography form an important part of any hair clinic. Analytical methods like phototrichogram are usually possible only in the setting of a clinical trial. Many of these methods (like the scalp biopsy) require expertise for both processing and interpreting. We reviewed the available literature in detail in light of merits and demerits of each method. A plethora of newer methods is being introduced, which are relevant to the cosmetic industry/research. Such methods as well as metabolic/hormonal evaluation are not included in this review.
  6,349 736 9
CASE REPORTS
Hair casts or pseudonits
Katlein França, Ricardo Tadeu Villa, Isabella Rezende Silva, Cristine Almeida de Carvalho, Valcinir Bedin
July-December 2011, 3(2):121-122
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.90834  PMID:22223977
Hair casts or pseudonits are thin, elongated, cylindrical concretions that encircle the hair shaft and can be easily dislodged. A case of pseudonits in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Though not unusual, false diagnoses are common.
  7,035 36 4
Is Propionibacterium acnes associated with hair casts and alopecia?
Etienne Wang, Joyce Siong-See Lee, Tan Hiok Hee
April-June 2012, 4(2):93-97
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.96907  PMID:23180917
We report a series of four patients who presented with complaints of diffuse non-scarring alopecia. They had similar clinical features of alopecia, hyperseborrhea, and distinct keratinaceous hair casts that encircled the hair shafts. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated from two of the patients' scalp, and Gram-positive, Giemsa-positive bacteria were seen in the hair follicles in the scalp biopsy of one of the patients. The patients' symptoms did not respond to standard treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, but responded to a course of systemic antibiotics targeting P. acnes. We propose a role for P. acnes colonization of the terminal hair follicles in the pathogenesis of hair casts, and possibly diffuse non-scarring alopecia. Possible mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed with a literature review.
  6,944 28 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Oxidative stress in ageing of hair
Ralph M Trueb
January-June 2009, 1(1):6-14
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.51923  PMID:20805969
Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia.
  6,380 569 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Keratosis Pilaris Revisited: Is It More Than Just a Follicular Keratosis?
Mary Thomas, Uday Sharadchandra Khopkar
October-December 2012, 4(4):255-258
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.111215  PMID:23766609
Background: Keratosis pilaris (KP) is characterized by keratinous plugs in the follicular orifices and varying degrees of perifollicular erythema. The most accepted theory of its pathogenesis proposes defective keratinization of the follicular epithelium resulting in a keratotic infundibular plug. We decided to test this hypothesis by doing dermoscopy of patients diagnosed clinically as keratosis pilaris. Materials and Methods: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of KP seen between September 2011 and December 2011 were included in the study. A clinical history was obtained and examination and dermoscopic evaluation were performed on the lesions of KP. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 6-38 years. Sixteen patients had history of atopy. Nine had concomitant ichthyosis vulgaris. All the 25 patients were found to have coiled hair shafts within the affected follicular infundibula. The hair shafts were extracted with the help of a sterile needle and were found to retain their coiled nature. Perifollicular erythema was seen in 11 patients; perifollicular scaling in 9. Conclusion: Based on our observations and previously documented histological data of KP, we infer that KP may not be a disorder of keratinization, but caused by the circular hair shaft which ruptures the follicular epithelium leading to inflammation and abnormal follicular keratinization.
  6,780 61 3
Use of low-level laser therapy as monotherapy or concomitant therapy for male and female Androgenetic alopecia
Andréia Munck, Maria Fernanda Gavazzoni, Ralph M Trüeb
April-June 2014, 6(2):45-49
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.138584  PMID:25191036
Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb ® , in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. Results: Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusions: LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth.
  6,334 87 1
COMMENTARY
Mesotherapy in management of hairloss - Is it of any use?
Venkataram Mysore
January-June 2010, 2(1):45-46
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.66914  PMID:21188025
Mesotherapy has received a lot of publicity in the media and internet about its possible role in androgenetic alopecia. However, the subject is controversial in view of lack of documented evidence. This article provides a critical commentary on the use of mesotherapy in the management of androgenetic alopecia.
  5,991 295 2
REVIEW ARTICLE
Hair cosmetics: An overview
Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni Dias
January-March 2015, 7(1):2-15
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.153450  PMID:25878443
Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity.
  6,002 213 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis): Clinical and microbiological experience with 56 cases
Alexandro Bonifaz, Denisse Váquez-González, Leonel Fierro, Javier Araiza, Rosa María Ponce
January-March 2013, 5(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.114704  PMID:23960390
Background: Trichomycosis is asymptomatic bacterial infection of the axillary hairs caused by Corynebacterium sp. Objective: to bring a series of cases of trichomycosis, its clinical and microbiological experience. Materials and Methods: This report consists in a linear and observational retrospective study of 15 years of cases of trichomycosis confirmed clinically and microbiologically. Results: Fifty six confirmed cases of trichomycosis were included in this report. The majority were men 53/56 (94.6%), mean age was 32.5 years. The most commonly affected area was the axilla (92%), trichomycosis flava was the principal variant 55/56 (98.2%) and signs and symptoms associated were hyperhidrosis (87.5%), hairs' texture change (57.1%) and odor (35.7%). Bacterial concretions were observed in all cases, and the predominant causative agent in 89.3% of all cases was Corynebacterium sp. Thirty patients were included in therapeutic portion of the study, and 28 (93.3%) of them experienced a clinical and microbiological cure. Conclusion: Trichomycosis is asymptomatic, superficial infection, which primarily affects axillary hairs.
  6,138 45 -
Extensive alopecia areata: Not necessarily recalcitrant to therapy!
Deepal Deshpande, Rachita Dhurat, Punit Saraogi, Sunil Mishra, Chitra Nayak
July-December 2011, 3(2):80-83
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.90807  PMID:22223966
Background: Extensive alopecia areata includes alopecia universalis, alopecia totalis, ophiasis and patients having more than 50% scalp involvement. Alopecia universalis (AU) and totalis (AT) are considered to be resistant to single modalities of treatment. Our study highlights the efficacy and safety of combination therapy in extensive alopecia areata. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination treatment with oral bethametasone mini-pulse, topical minoxidil and short contact anthralin in long-standing, treatment-resistant, extensive alopecia areata. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients aged 7 to 45 years with extensive, treatment-resistant alopecia areata (AU: 7; AT: 1; ophiasis: 4; patients with more than 50% scalp involvement: 3) were treated with betamethasone oral mini-pulse (0.1 mg per kg body weight per dose on two consecutive days per week) along with short contact anthralin (1.15%) and 2-5% minoxidil lotion daily, till response. The response was assessed by the severity of alopecia tool (SALT) score. Cosmetic response was defined as regrowth obviating the need of a wig. Failure of treatment was defined as no growth or vellus hair on the scalp. Results: Out of eight patients with AU/AT, two attained cosmetic response as early as three months, two at six months and one had partial response. Cosmetic response was attained in all four patients with ophiasis and all three patients with more than 50% scalp involvement at six months. All responders maintained their response without systemic steroids beyond 12 months. Among a total of twelve responders (80%), two with AU showed a mild relapse and were effectively treated with intralesional steroids. Side effects to therapy were mild and reversible. Conclusion: A combination therapy of oral steroid minipulse with topical anthralin and minoxidil acts synergistically, being effective as well as safe in treatment-resistant, extensive, long-standing alopecia areata.
  5,858 167 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Randomized comparison of topical betamethasone valerate foam, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and tacrolimus ointment in management of localized alopecia areata
CM Kuldeep, Himanshu Singhal, Ashok Kumar Khare, Asit Mittal, Lalit K Gupta, Anubhav Garg
January-June 2011, 3(1):20-24
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.82123  PMID:21769231
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring, patchy loss of hair at scalp and elsewhere. Its pathogenesis is uncertain; however, auto-immunity has been exemplified in various studies. Familial incidence of AA is 10-42%, but in monozygotic twins is 50%. Local steroids (topical / intra-lesional) are very effective in treatment of localized AA. Aim: To compare hair regrowth and side effects of topical betamethasone valerate foam, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and tacrolimus ointment in management of localized AA. Materials and Methods: 105 patients of localized AA were initially registered but 27 were drop out. So, 78 patients allocated at random in group A (28), B (25) and C (25) were prescribed topical betamethasone valerate foam (0.1%) twice daily, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (10mg/ml) every 3 weeks and tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) twice daily, respectively, for 12 weeks. They were followed for next12 weeks. Hair re-growth was calculated using "HRG Scale"; scale I- (0-25%), S II-(26-50%), S III - (51-75%) and S IV- (75-100%). Results: Hair re-growth started by 3 weeks in group B (Scale I: P<0.03), turned satisfactory at 6 weeks in group A and B (Scale I: P<0.005, Scale IV: P<0.001)), good at 9 weeks (Scale I: P<0.0005, Scale IV: P<0.00015), and better by 12 weeks of treatment (Scale I: P<0.000021, Scale IV: P<0.000009) in both A and B groups. At the end of 12 weeks follow-up hair re-growth (>75%, HRG IV) was the best in group B (15 of 25, 60%), followed by A (15 of 28, 53.6%) and lastly group-C (Nil of 25, 0%) patients. Few patients reported mild pain and atrophy at injection sites, pruritus and burning with betamethasone valerate foam and tacrolimus. Conclusion: Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide is the best, betamethasone valerate foam is better than tacrolimus in management of localized AA.
  5,721 152 11
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Female pattern hair loss: Clinico-laboratory findings and trichoscopy depending on disease severity
Xingqi Zhang, Sillani Caulloo, Ying Zhao, Bin Zhang, Zhang Cai, Jian Yang
January-March 2012, 4(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.96082  
Background: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a progressive hair loss disorder with unclear triggering and supporting factors. Trichoscopic features of each stage of FPHL have not been specifically elaborated previously. Aims: To analyze characteristics and investigate associations of clinico-laboratory and trichoscopic features of female patients in regard to the severity of hair loss in FPHL and to facilitate its diagnosis using noninvasive scalp dermoscopy (trichoscopy) in Fitzpatrick skin type III patients. Materials and Methods: Clinico-laboratory and trichoscopic data from 60 patients with FPHL were analyzed using Spearman's correlation test. Results: Patients had mean age of 34.4±10.6 years and mean duration of hair loss of 4.49±3.76 years. Of all, 45% (27/60) had a family history of pattern hair loss (PHL) and had an earlier onset of hair loss. Stage of hair loss positively correlated with duration and age at presentation. No association was found between the severity of FPHL and laboratory values including anemic and gonadal hormone profiles. Characteristic trichoscopic features (at 10-fold magnification) of FPHL were peripilar signs (PPS) (brown, BPPS and white, WPPS), white dots, scalp pigmentation, and focal atrichia. WPPS, scalp pigmentation, and focal atrichia positively correlated with the stage and duration of hair loss. Conclusions: Family history of PHL causes an earlier onset of hair loss but does not influence its course or severity. The latter is also not affected by abnormal anemic profile or hormonal levels. PPS, scalp pigmentation, focal atrichia, and white dots are characteristic of PHL. WPPS, scalp pigmentation, and focal atrichia reflect advanced PHL.
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